This Operation has been modified as per Budget revision 3 (see below).
Sudan is classified as both a Least Developed Country (LDC) and a Low Income Food Deficit Country (LIFDC), and ranked 147th out of 177 countries against the UNDP’s composite Human Development Index.
The ongoing conflict in Darfur, the huge challenges confronting South Sudan after decades of civil war including returns, limited infrastructure, and the need for a consolidation of governance, and strained livelihoods and economic dislocation in the East, have left much of Sudan food insecure and dependent on international aid.
In 2008, the implementation of the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), which marked the cessation of hostilities between North and South Sudan, continued to face numerous challenges as key benchmarks approached, contributing to political instability at national and regional levels. In May 2008, tensions in Abyei, located on the North-South border, in close proximity to oil resources, resulted in open hostilities involving the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and the Sudanese People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). Much of Abyei town was destroyed and an estimated 50,000 people fled.
In Darfur, attempts to restart the peace process stagnated, while conflict and poor harvests led to new displacements. Conflict has occasionally spilled over into neighbouring parts of North Kordofan and South Kordofan, and in May 2008, elements of one of the main rebel groups in Darfur staged a raid that reached the outskirts of Khartoum. Civilian casualties and attacks on the humanitarian community also continued.
Sudan continued to be WFP’s largest emergency operation in 2008, due to a combination of conflict, large-scale population displacement and poverty.
In 2009, the emergency operation will maintain an emergency focus, providing support to large populations in need of general food rations, supplemented by other food safety net interventions.
The overarching goal of this EMOP 10760.0 is to save lives and reduce food insecurity, and to restore the livelihoods of conflict-affected and vulnerable populations in Sudan. It will address WFP’s Strategic Objective 1: to save lives and protect livelihoods in emergencies, by reducing or stabilizing acute malnutrition and mortality, and protecting livelihoods, amongst IDPs, refugees and other vulnerable groups and communities.
It will also address WFP Strategic Objective 3: to restore and re-build livelihoods in post conflict situations, by supporting the return of IDPs and refugees and the re-establishment of livelihoods and the food security of communities. Finally, it will address WFP Strategic Objective 4: to reduce chronic hunger and undernutrition, by increasing access to education, particularly for girls, and improving the nutritional status of those affected by chronic disease. The components of the operation also address Millennium Development Goals 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.
Beneficiaries have been identified through needs assessments carried out by WFP and its partners, including both annual and rolling assessments. Assistance to conflict-afflicted and displaced populations, and vulnerable residents, (4,085,000 beneficiaries) will continue to account for the bulk of the planned assistance.
This will be done primarily through general food distributions (GFD) to identified populations.
Supplementary feeding programmes (551,000 beneficiaries) will be expanded, in collaboration with UNICEF and cooperating NGO partners. Blanket and targeted supplementary feeding programmes, using an improved mix of fortified blended food, dried skimmed milk and sugar, which started in North Darfur in 2008, will be expanded to West and South Darfur in 2009.
Support to therapeutic feeding programmes (6,100 beneficiaries) will continue to be limited to the provision of rations to care-givers and – to a lesser extent – transitional rations at the later recovery stage.
In the southern Sudan flood plain areas, high child mortality attributed to a combination of malaria and high malnutrition has been identified as an urgent problem in assessments. A pilot supplementary feeding programme to address this situation is planned for 2009.
Assistance to returnees in South Sudan and in the East and Three Areas (227,000 beneficiaries), and support to the reintegration of ex-combatants (54,500 beneficiaries), will continue in 2009. Recent WFP assessments concluded that many returnees have not reached food self-reliance and require continued targeted food assistance while gradually rebuilding sustainable livelihoods.
In the East, assistance to refugees (48,500 beneficiaries), in partnership with UNHCR and the Government, will continue under this emergency operation. Based on a joint targeting exercise, targeted food assistance interventions have replaced general rations for about half the camp population who have been present in Sudan for a number of years. In addition, substantial numbers of asylum seekers have been entering Sudan from Eritrea over the past months and will require full support for some time.
Early recovery activities will also be implemented in areas of the country where conditions permit. Targeted education-related interventions (1,000,500 beneficiaries) have expanded in areas of southern Sudan and Darfur, and WFP continues to work with the Government and partners to improve the quality and effectiveness of the school feeding programme.
Food for Recovery (FFR, 255,000 beneficiaries) is intended to serve as an alternative to GFD to support recovery in settings where food for work is not a viable option due to a lack of implementation capacity or other factors. Food for work (172,500 beneficiaries) will be used in support of community and infrastructure development to improve basic social services.
Food-for-training (54,200 beneficiaries) activities will focus on developing and maintaining human capacity, through support for alternative income-generating activities.
Institutional feeding (59,500 beneficiaries) will continue to be provided to patients undergoing specific treatment such as TB, HIV/AIDS and leishmaniasis (Kalaazar).
Programming for HIV/AIDS – which is a growing concern in southern Sudan, Three Areas and eastern Sudan – will be expanded.
The logistics costs of the emergency operation are high due to long transport distances, the poor state of much of the road network and difficult security conditions. The critical humanitarian and food security situation requires that WFP continue to provide large-scale and uninterrupted emergency food assistance, which necessitates the early pre-positioning of food stocks near to the main distribution points.
The budget includes a provision for an airlift operation, should there again be a major disruption of transport routes in 2009, which also adds to the overall logistic costs.
To help reduce costs and to meet local food preferences, while assisting the national economy, subject to market conditions prevailing at the time, WFP will continue to purchase up to 120,000 metric tons of sorghum locally. Ideally this would be done close to the harvest when prices are at their lowest. Plans are also being made to expand the supply of milling vouchers to beneficiaries in 2009, based on successful pilot experiences in North and South Darfur.
WFP will continue to engage in interagency efforts to further refine and update IDP registration information. WFP will continue to cooperate closely with FAO, UNICEF and other UN agencies.
The activities included in the EMOP will be incorporated into the 2009 UN and Partner’s Work Plan for Sudan. In addition, the early recovery activities under the EMOP are included in the UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) for Sudan 2009-2012. Food distribution and monitoring is carried out under partnership agreements with over 100 international and national non-government organisations.
The Government does not have the capacity to manage an emergency of the scale of current Darfur operations, but other components of the operation could eventually be handed over to the Government, in conjunction with capacity-building support. A strategy for the period 2009-2012, now under preparation, will include a scenario for a transition from the current emergency approach to a more sustainable portfolio of activities, which could eventually be handed over to government structures.
This operation has been modified as per Budget revision 06/09 (see below).
Sudan is the largest country on the African continent and arguably one of the most complex....