The objective of this survey is to better understand how markets function on in the Arid Lands and what capacity they may have to respond to increased demand. It explores the feasibility of alternative transfer delivery mechanisms in the Arid Lands based on cash or vouchers. This will inform decision makers when programming food assistance and livelihood interventions including how these options impact on gender dynamics. The analysis focuses on the market systems with different supply side actors and their behaviour, the enabling environment and how markets perform with regards to food supplies, e.g. how are markets integrated and whether prices exhibit seasonal and volatile patterns.