The main objective of the returnee Emergency Food Security Assessment (EFSA) was to assess the food security status of the returnees and local resident community in the main returnee concentration areas. It aimed to understand the food and/or non‐food needs of returnees after 3 months upon return to southern Sudan. The data was collected from 7‐15 February 2011 in six out of ten South Sudan States selected based on return concentration. The selected states were Western Bahr El Ghazal, Northern Bahr El Ghazal, Unity, Jonglei, Warrap and Central Equatoria. Due to insecurity and logistical reasons, the assessment was not conducted in Upper Nile State. A total number of 340 households in 17 sites were assessed. The EFSA was a joint effort by SSRRC, SSCCSE, MOAF, FAO and WFP.