Rwanda is a low-income and least developed country, ranks 166 out of 187 countries based on UNDP Human Development Index for 2011. Rwanda has one of the highest population densities in Africa, with 416 people living per square kilometre; it is among the highest in Africa. Its population increases at an annual rate of 2.6 per cent, currently standing close to 11 million. The country has limited natural resources, and the main sector is agriculture, which contributes to over 33 per cent of the national GDP and generates 80 per cent of the total export revenue. Agricultural transformation has been identified as the main pillar for achieving food security. The Country plans attaining a per capita income of US$900 by the year 2020 from current US$520. Despite its impressive economic recovery with an annual GDP growth of 7.2 per cent since 2010, household food insecurity continues to be a challenge.
According to the Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA) and Nutrition Survey 2012, the prevalence of chronic malnutrition among children under age 5 is still high at 43 per cent, but this is an improvement over the survey seven years ago, when stunting was as high as 51 per cent. The northern and western areas bordering Lake Kivu and along the Congo Nile Crest are the most affected areas, with rates of stunting over 60 per cent. Life expectancy in Rwanda is 51 years, households headed by women or orphans account for 36 per cent of the population. Currently Rwanda is home to 67,000 refugees mainly from Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, who are hosted in four camps and one transit centre. Security in the region remains precarious, particularly in eastern DRC, thus reducing the possibility of any repatriation of refugees in the near future. In addition, around 70,000 Rwandans still live as refugees and asylum seekers in the DRC, Uganda and other African countries. Since the 1994 genocide and the total collapse of Rwanda's society, economy and social services, the government has embarked on rebuilding the country and improving the quality of life of the population. Good governance, productive and market-oriented agriculture, and regional and international economic integration are three of the six pillars of the Rwanda Vision 2020. Rwanda was also the first country to sign the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) compact and to secure funding, thus confirming malnutrition and food insecurity as one of the government's key priorities.