Overview

Rwanda is a low-income, food-deficit and least developed country, and ranks 151 out of 187 countries based on the 2014 UNDP Human Development Report. Rwanda has one of the highest population densities in Africa, with 416 people living per square kilometre. The total population stands at 11.2 million, with an annual increase rate of 2.6 percent. Agriculture contributes 33 percent of the national gross domestic product (GDP) and generates 80 percent of export revenue. Rwanda plans to increase its per capita income from USD 644 to USD 1,240 by 2020.
Since the 1994 genocide, the country has been rebuilding itself and improving the population's quality of life. Good governance, productive and market-oriented agriculture, and regional and international economic integration are three of the six pillars of the Rwanda Vision 2020. Rwanda was the first country to sign the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) Compact and to secure funding, thus addressing malnutrition and food insecurity as Government priorities.
Despite Rwanda's impressive annual GDP growth rate of 7.2 percent since 2010, household food insecurity remains a major challenge. According to the 2012 CFSVA, the national prevalence of chronic malnutrition (stunting) among children under five years is high (43 percent), but in northern and western areas bordering Lake Kivu and along the Congo Nile Crest rates are over 60 percent. Life expectancy is 64.1 years and households headed by women or orphans account for 36 percent of the population.
Rwanda currently hosts 77,700 refugees, mostly from the Democratic Republic of Congo, in five refugee camps within which livelihood opportunities and access to land for cultivation are limited. Due to the comprehensive solutions strategy agreed in June 2013 for Rwandan refugees who fled between 1959 and 1998, it is expected that 20,000 Rwandans will return by the end of 2015.