Publications
Baseline Assessments
8 May 2013
The collaboration between Provincial Food Security Office (FSO) NTB and the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) brings us the Provincial Food Security & Vulnerability Atlas (FSVA) of Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) Province 2010. Provincial FSVA covering 105 sub-districts in 8 rural districts that consolidated many variables of the food security aspects such as food availability, food access and distribution, and health and nutrition. Provincial FSVA serves as an important tool for decision making in targeting and developing recommendations for responding to food and nutrition insecurity at the district and sub-districts levels.
 
Analyzed 13 indicators related to food security for the period of 2007-2009, and composite analysis of 9 of them allow the FSVA to answer three key questions on food security and its vulnerability: Where are the higher vulnerable to food insecurity (by district, sub-district); How Many are they (estimated population); and Why are they higher vulnerable (main determinants for food insecurity)?.
 
The provincial FSVA are available in bilingual (Bahasa Indonesia and English).
Baseline Assessments, Focus on Women, Food Security Analysis, Gender
11 April 2013
Despite Indonesia’s economic growth and democratic system, gender equality remains a challenging issue. In many parts of the archipelago, women and children are marginalized in their own households. Marginalization is especially detrimental when it comes to food access and has a direct impact on undernutrition rates.
 
The eastern province of Nusa Tenggara Timur has among the highest rates of undernutrition in Indonesia, with more than a third of children under five years old considered underweight. In addition, up to 58.4 percent of children are stunted.1 Undernutrition and malnutrition primarily affect children and women.
 
This Gender Rapid Assessment (GRA) aims to understand the underlying causes of gender marginalization in NTT and how they can be addressed. It represents the first step in developing WFP’s strategy on gender mainstreaming and provides valuable information for the development of the NTT Province Food and Nutrition Action Plan (FNAP), also known as RAD-PG (Rencana Aksi Daerah-Pangan dan Gizi). Improved gender awareness will facilitate the improvement of food and overall nutrition security in NTT.
 
The report finds that gender inequalities are embedded in the social values and daily life practices of the people of NTT. They mainly derive from misinterpretation of cultural traditions related to dowry and clan inheritance that contribute to women’s subordination to men and the resulting weak decision-making roles women have with regard to food and nutrition issues. As a result, women are especially vulnerable to food insecurity and undernutrition. Even though poverty stands as the major factor causing undernutrition, gender inequality worsens the situation for children and women, especially pregnant and lactating mothers. NTT women play a critical role in achieving food and nutrition security. Empowering women to make free and informed choices for their family is critical in improving food and nutrition security. By considering women as food holders, women empowerment programmes are tailored to support women in decision- making processes that affect the nutritional wellbeing of the family.
 
While the Government has initiated interventions addressing gender dimensions related to food security and nutrition, these interventions mainly address the consequences of gender inequality rather than its causes. The absence of gender analyses during programme assessment has resulted in gender gaps and the lack of a comprehensive action plan to adequately confront gender challenges.
 
WFP, in support of the NTT Government, has itself begun to institutionalize gender mainstreaming within its organization and is working to improve its work team’s perspectives on gender and translate them into action. Fostering gender mainstreaming within WFP and in food and nutrition programmes requires time, energy, creativity and strong engagement from WFP and other development partners. WFP team must, therefore, closely monitor gender mainstreaming implementation both within the organization as well as in key partners in order to ensure its success.
Baseline Assessments, Nutrition
11 April 2013

 A sensory acceptability study was conducted in Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS) District, East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) before WFP Indonesia launched its intervention programme to combat malnutrition using a Lipid Nutrient Supplement (LNS) product. The general objective of this study was to examine the consumption of LNS by infants and children aged 6-24 months. 

 
Data collection was conducted from April 14 to May 10, 2011 in Konbaki and Balu Villages, Polen Sub-district, TTS District, NTT province, Indonesia. The design study used was a randomized crossover design with a wash-out period. The population under study comprised mothers and children aged 6-24 months in TTS district. In-depth interviews with cadres/health volunteers (four people) and focus group discussions with 24 mothers were also conducted to provide information related to complementary feeding data. 
Baseline Assessments
11 April 2013

 Food and nutrition assessments, combined with expenditure surveys, provide information about what people eat, how much money they spend on it, and their nutritional status. Additionally, individuals’ nutrient needs are known, and households are advised on how to ensure consumption of a healthy and nutritious diet. However, in contexts where food availability does not appear to be a problem, it remains unknown how much of the nutrient gap is due to economic constraints to a nutritious diet (unaffordability), a lack of knowledge on healthy eating, and food and nutrition practices. Moreover, current methodologies to assess food and nutrition security are not able to analyse households' constraints in accessing their nutrient requirements, especially for their most vulnerable members, such as children under two years. 

 
The Minimum Cost of a Nutritious Diet (CoD) is the cost of a theoretical, simulated diet (food basket) which satisfies all nutritional requirements of a modelled family at the minimal possible cost, based on the availability, price, and nutrient content of local foods.  Any other food basket at the same price will be less nutritious, and any other food basket of the same nutrient value will be more expensive.  Hence, when combined with household income and expenditure data, the CoD can be used to estimate the proportion of households that can afford an adequately nutritious diet in a particular area.  Therefore, the CoD is a tool to link nutrient availability with economic food access. 
 
Baseline Assessments, Nutrition
11 April 2013

Food and nutrition assessments, combined with expenditure surveys, provide information about what people eat, how much money they spend on it, and their nutritional status. Additionally, individuals’ nutrient needs are known, and households are advised on how to ensure consumption of a healthy and nutritious diet. However, in contexts where food availability does not appear to be a problem, it remains unknown how much of the nutrient gap is due to economic constraints to a nutritious diet (unaffordability), a lack of knowledge on healthy eating, and food and nutrition practices. Moreover, current methodologies to assess food and nutrition security are not able to analyse households' constraints in accessing their nutrient requirements, especially for their most vulnerable members, such as children under two years. 

 
The Minimum Cost of a Nutritious Diet (CoD) is the cost of a theoretical, simulated diet (food basket) which satisfies all nutritional requirements of a modelled family at the minimal possible cost, based on the availability, price, and nutrient content of local foods.  Any other food basket at the same price will be less nutritious, and any other food basket of the same nutrient value will be more expensive.  Hence, when combined with household income and expenditure data, the CoD can be used to estimate the proportion of households that can afford an adequately nutritious diet in a particular area.  Therefore, the CoD is a tool to link nutrient availability with economic food access. 
 
Baseline Assessments
10 April 2013

 The feasibility study in Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB) and Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) indicates potential opportunities for WFP to apply cash transfer programme (CTP) in both provinces. Nevertheless, cash transfer approach is not always the most appropriate option when considering the needs, the expected impacts, and suitability to a specific context.

 
The opportunities for CTP application in the study was identified through a SWOT analysis which was based on the learning of existing and previous CTP implementation, institutional platform and supporting system, and comprehensive understanding of different needs for different household groups. In addition, WFP strengths related to knowledge and learning capacity, organizational capacity, and existing networks will direct such opportunities towards a successful CTP application. The threats and weaknesses recognized simply underline the need for a better organizational preparation, and are within a manageable level.
 
From the review of CTP applications in NTT and NTB, the study has distinguished a wide public acceptance yet expectation for a better and more participatory approach in CTP design and implementation. There is enormous learning from CTP implementations available at local, national, and global levels. Hence a library of knowledge is waiting for WFP’s further exploration and future adoption. The study also acknowledges a potential role for WFP to take in coordinating all related cash transfer works in Indonesia as it is still remaining a gap.
 
Although the study has limited coverage of market analysis, it has managed to capture the important role of market in providing advices on whether or not cash transfer is appropriate and which modality to choose, or whether in-kind distribution be opted instead. Market analysis should be part of the assessment, as it should be able to inform the intervention design. In this feasibility study, rice market in NTB and maize market in NTT have been chosen based on the importance of those two food items for the community and its great impact on people’s livelihood. A more detailed market assessment on essential/critical product is strongly recommended, if WFP plans to implement CTP in NTB and NTT.
 
Quality should be put at the heart of CTP implementation and preparation is its key contributing factor. The study has provided eight key preparation areas required, of which four key areas to be prioritized are: (1) in-house CTP capacity and expertise (2) finance and logistic support function (3) market and local economy understanding (4) standardization of tools, baseline information, and data collection. WFP in-house capacity should be soon developed through the availability of designated staff with CTP knowledge and skills, followed up by the development of CTP capacity building strategy, and initial reviews of various CTP guidelines to be adjusted to WFP context in Indonesia. Finance and logistic support in CTP application is as important as the programme division. A review of existing finance and logistic policy and procedures is required to see if it is ready for CTP application. Consultation with CTP experienced organizations will be useful. Tools and baseline data should be standardized and able to quantify diverse community needs. At the same time, CTP tools and instruments such as step by step guideline, various project forms, monitoring tools, and reporting format will be important to support future WFP cash transfer implementation and sound documentation throughout the process.
Baseline Assessments, Food Security Analysis
31 March 2010

There has been a constant need for the Government of Indonesia to improve geographical targeting of more vulnerable areas for food and nutrition security related interventions. Recognizing World Food Programme (WFP) expertise in food security analysis and mapping, in 2003 the Food Security Council (FSC), chaired by the President of Indonesia, whose Secretariat is the Food Security Agency (FSA), collaborated with WFP to develop the national Food Insecurity Atlas (FIA) for Indonesia.  The first FIA was developed and launched in 2005 and covered 265 rural districts in 30 provinces. More than US $32 million were allocated by the Government to 100 districts identified as food insecure and interventions began in 2006-2007. The second Atlas, with a new title “Food Security and Vulnerability Atlas (FSVA)” covering 346 rural districts in 32 provinces, will be launched by end of 2009 or early 2010, and it has already been fully integrated into annual government work plans and budgetary allocations. WFP has been providing technical and financial support towards the development and implementation of the FIA and FSVA since 2003.