Publications
Food Prices, Nutrition
25 September 2013

Cost of the Diet (CoD) tool: First results from Indonesia and applications for policy discussion on food and nutrition security

the paper was published on Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 34, no. 2 (supplement) © 2013, The United Nations University.

 

Authors:

Baldi, Giulia; Martini, Elviyanti; Catharina, Maria; Muslimatun, Siti; Fahmida, Umi; Jahari, Abas Basuni; Hardinsyah; Frega, Romeo; Geniez, Perrine; Grede, Nils; Minarto; Bloem, Martin W.; de Pee, Saskia

 

The Minimum Cost of a Nutritious Diet (MCNut) is the cost of a theoretical diet satisfying all nutrient requirements of a family at the lowest possible cost, based on availability, price, and nutrient content of local foods. A comparison with household expenditure shows the proportion of households that would be able to afford a nutritious diet.
Objective. To explore using the Cost of Diet (CoD) tool for policy dialogue on food and nutrition security in Indonesia.

Methods. From October 2011 to June 2012, market surveys collected data on food commodity availability and pricing in four provinces. Household composition and expenditure data were obtained from secondary data (SUSENAS 2010). Focus group discussions were conducted to better understand food consumption practices. Different types of fortified foods and distribution mechanisms were also modeled.

Results. Stark differences were found among the four areas: in Timor Tengah Selatan, only 25% of households could afford to meet the nutrient requirements, whereas in urban Surabaya, 80% could. The prevalence rates of underweight and stunting among children under 5 years of age in the four areas were inversely correlated with the proportion of households that could afford a nutritious diet. The highest reduction in the cost of the child's diet was achieved by modeling provision of fortified blended food through Social Safety Nets. Rice fortification, subsidized or at commercial price, can greatly improve nutrient affordability for households.

Conclusions. The CoD analysis is a useful entry point for discussions on constraints on achieving adequate nutrition in different areas and on possible ways to improve nutrition, including the use of special foods and different distribution strategies.

Nutrition
11 April 2013

Tujuan Rencana Aksi Daerah Pangan dan Gizi (RAD-PG) Nusa Tenggara Barat 2011-2015 adalah: (1) meningkatkan status gizi masyarakat dengan target penurunan prevalensi balita gizi buruk dan kurang menjadi 18.8 persen, dan penurunan prevalensi balita pendek dan sangat pendek menjadi 36.6 persen, serta menurunkan proporsi penduduk rawan pangan menjadi 10 persen pada tahun 2015, (2) mempertahankan dan meningkatkan produksi pangan berbasis kemandirian untuk menyediakan  ketersediaan energi perkapita minimal 2,200 kkal/hari, dan penyediaan protein perkapita minimal 57 gram/hari, (3) meningkatkan keragaman konsumsi pangan rata-rata perkapita untuk mencapai gizi seimbang dengan kecukupan energi 2,000 kkal/hari dan protein sebesar 52 gram/ hari dan cukup zat gizi mikro, serta meningkatkan keragaman konsumsi pangan dengan skor Pola Pangan Harapan (PPH) menjadi 84 pada tahun 2015, dan (4) meningkatkan keamanan dan mutu pangan yang dikonsumsi masyarakat dengan menekan dan meminimalkan pelanggaran terhadap ketentuan keamanan pangan.

 
Rencana aksi ini disusun melalui pendekatan lima pilar pembangunan pangan dan gizi yang meliputi: (1) perbaikan gizi masyarakat, terutama pada ibu pra-hamil, ibu hamil, dan anak melalui peningkatkan ketersediaan dan jangkauan pelayanan kesehatan berkelanjutan difokuskan pada intervensi gizi efektif pada ibu pra-hamil, ibu hamil, bayi, dan anak balita dua tahun, (2) peningkatan aksesibilitas pangan yang beragam melalui peningkatan ketersediaan dan akses pangan yang difokuskan pada keluarga rentan pangan dan miskin, (3) peningkatan pengawasan mutu dan keamanan pangan melalui peningkatan pengawasan keamanan pangan yang difokuskan pada makanan jajanan yang memenuhi syarat dan produk industri rumah tangga (PIRT) tersertifikasi, (4) peningkatan perilaku hidup bersih dan sehat (PHBS) melalui peningkatan pemberdayaan masyarakat dan peran pimpinan formal serta non formal, terutama dalam perubahan perilaku atau budaya konsumsi pangan yang difokuskan pada penganekaragaman konsumsi pangan berbasis sumber daya lokal, perilaku hidup bersih dan sehat, serta merevitalisasi posyandu, dan (5) penguatan kelembagaan pangan dan gizi melalui penguatan kelembagaan pangan dan gizi di tingkat provinsi, dan kabupaten/kota, serta sampai tingkat desa.
 
Pemantauan pencapaian RAD-PG 2011-2015, berdasarkan indikator yang telah disusun dalam matriks pada dokumen ini akan difokuskan pada kegiatan yang sedang dilaksanakan agar secepatnya dapat diketahui kelemahan untuk segera diantisipasi. Sedangkan evaluasi dilakukan untuk mengetahui dampak kegiatan sesuai dengan rencana target yang telah ditentukan.
Nutrition
11 April 2013

Pelaksanaan pembangunan di Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT) tahun 2009-2013 didasarkan pada Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Daerah (RPJMD). Dokumen perencanaan tersebut merupakan acuan bagi semua pemangku kepentingan yang terlibat dalam proses pembangunan. Pelaksanaan pembangunan di Provinsi NTT telah memberikan hasil yang cukup baik, hal ini ditandai dengan menurunnya jumlah penduduk miskin pada tahun 2008 sebanyak 25.65 persen menjadi 20.48 persen pada bulan september tahun 2011. Selain keberhasilan tersebut, masih terdapat sejumlah permasalahan yang perlu mendapatkan perhatian dari semua pihak. Di bidang ketahanan pangan dan gizi, pembangunan di Provinsi NTT masih dihadapkan pada sejumlah persoalan seperti rendahnya ketahanan pangan keluarga, belum optimalnya pemanfaatan lahan kering dan lahan tidur, rendahnya pengetahuan keluarga tentang pola gizi berimbang dan masih banyaknya balita yang mengalami gizi kurang dan gizi buruk.

 
Untuk mengatasi berbagai permasalahan pembangunan di bidang ketahanan pangan dan gizi tersebut, secara sektoral telah disusun Rencana Strategis (Renstra) dari setiap sektor mulai dari tingkat pusat sampai ke daerah. Untuk mengsinkronkan berbagai Renstra tersebut agar lebih terukur dan terarah maka pada tingkat nasional telah disusun Rencana Aksi Nasional Pangan dan Gizi (RAN-PG). RAN-PG tersebut ditindaklanjuti dengan penyusunan Rencana Aksi Daerah Pangan dan Gizi (RAD-PG). Berkaitan dengan penyusunan RAD-PG tersebut Pemerintah Provinsi NTT mendapatkan dukungan dari World Food Programme (WFP), UNICEF dan Wahana Visi Indonesia (WVI).
 
Dokumen RAD-PG Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur tahun 2012-2015 yang disusun ini merupakan penjabaran lebih lanjut dari RAN-PG, serta merupakan dokumen operasional lintas sektor dari RPJMD Provinsi NTT tahun 2009-2013 dan RPJMD Provinsi NTT tahin 2014-2018. Dokumen ini merupakan arahan bagi proses perencanaan, pelaksanaan, monitoring dan evaluasi pembangunan pertanian dan kesehatan secara umum dan khususnya pembangunan bidang ketahananan pangan dan gizi.
Facts and Figures, Capacity Development, Climate Change, Nutrition, School Meals
11 April 2013

Program WFP Indonesia tahun 2012 – 2015 merefleksikan transformasi Indonesia yang dinamis dari status negara berpenghasilan rendah ke berpenghasilan menengah dengan memastikan kelompok masyarakat rentan dapat melepaskan diri dari lingkaran kelaparan dan kekurangan gizi seiring kemajuan ekonomi bangsa. Program WFP Indonesia juga merefleksikan bergesernya peran WFP dari hubungan langsung operasional ke arah pengembangan kapasitas pemerintah dan masyarakat dalam menghadapi tantangan – tantangan ketahanan pangan dan gizi. WFP mendukung pemerintah dalam meningkatkan kapasitasnya menangani daearh rentan pangan dan gizi serta dalam kesiapsiagaan bencana melalui bantuan teknis, proyek – proyek percontohan serta dukungan kebijakan.

 

Seiring dengan pengembangan kapasitas mitra-mitra lokal, WFP juga menjawab kebutuhan mendesak atas kebutuhan pangan dan gizi melalui strategi pendekatan inovatif dan kemitraan. Melalui pendekatan dua jalur yang beriringan, WFP memastikan kepemilikan lokal dan kesinambungan, pemanfaatan kemitraan strategis dan membangun keberhasilan yang bertahap.
 
WFP memfokuskan diri terutama pada daerah rawan pangan di propinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur, Nusa Tenggara Barat dan Papua serta tetap menghadirkan kantor penghubung di Aceh.
Facts and Figures, Capacity Development, Climate Change, Food for Assets, Food Security Analysis, Nutrition, School Meals
11 April 2013

The new WFP’s Country Programme 2012-2015 reflects Indonesia’s dynamic transfor-mation from low income to middle income status and challenges of ensuring that the poorest and most vulnerable people escape the cycle of hunger and under-nutrition as the country progresses economically.

 
The country programme also reflects the shift in WFP’s role from direct operational engagement to capacity development of the government and the communities to address food security and nutrition challenges. WFP support the government to enhance the capacity to address food and nutrition insecurity and disaster preparedness through technical assistance, prototyping and policy advocacy.
While investing in capacity development of local actors, WFP is also responding to immediate food and nutrition needs through innovative approach and partnership. Through this twin track approach, WFP ensures local ownership and sustainability, leverage strategic partnerships and build on incremental success.
 
WFP focuses primarily on the food insecure provinces Nusa Tenggara Timur, Nusa Tenggara Barat and Papua, while keeping a small liaison office in Aceh.
Baseline Assessments, Nutrition
11 April 2013

 A sensory acceptability study was conducted in Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS) District, East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) before WFP Indonesia launched its intervention programme to combat malnutrition using a Lipid Nutrient Supplement (LNS) product. The general objective of this study was to examine the consumption of LNS by infants and children aged 6-24 months. 

 
Data collection was conducted from April 14 to May 10, 2011 in Konbaki and Balu Villages, Polen Sub-district, TTS District, NTT province, Indonesia. The design study used was a randomized crossover design with a wash-out period. The population under study comprised mothers and children aged 6-24 months in TTS district. In-depth interviews with cadres/health volunteers (four people) and focus group discussions with 24 mothers were also conducted to provide information related to complementary feeding data. 
Nutrition
11 April 2013

The United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) Indonesia, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health of Government of Indonesia had been supporting the Government’s existing Maternal and Child Nutrition programme (MCN) in poor and food insecure areas with high malnutrition rates under the Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation in the period 2005 2011. This documentation is intended to provide an overview of the MCN programme implementation for future capacity development and policy advocacy based on West Nusatenggara context. Data collection was carried out on October – November 2011 through desk review and field visit and the report was based on information from 2007/2008 – June 2011.

 
The primary objectives of the MCN programme was mostly focused on the improvement of nutritional status and health and nutrition behaviour of the intended target groups at the first phase and elements of strengthening the local capacity and integration to the existing MCN program was added at the second phase through providing locally produced biscuits and noodles fortified with 9 vitamins and 5 minerals along with health and nutrition education. The programme in West Nusatenggara covers 591 Posyandus from 55 villages, 19 Puskesmas, 10 sub districts and 4 districts.
Baseline Assessments, Nutrition
11 April 2013

Food and nutrition assessments, combined with expenditure surveys, provide information about what people eat, how much money they spend on it, and their nutritional status. Additionally, individuals’ nutrient needs are known, and households are advised on how to ensure consumption of a healthy and nutritious diet. However, in contexts where food availability does not appear to be a problem, it remains unknown how much of the nutrient gap is due to economic constraints to a nutritious diet (unaffordability), a lack of knowledge on healthy eating, and food and nutrition practices. Moreover, current methodologies to assess food and nutrition security are not able to analyse households' constraints in accessing their nutrient requirements, especially for their most vulnerable members, such as children under two years. 

 
The Minimum Cost of a Nutritious Diet (CoD) is the cost of a theoretical, simulated diet (food basket) which satisfies all nutritional requirements of a modelled family at the minimal possible cost, based on the availability, price, and nutrient content of local foods.  Any other food basket at the same price will be less nutritious, and any other food basket of the same nutrient value will be more expensive.  Hence, when combined with household income and expenditure data, the CoD can be used to estimate the proportion of households that can afford an adequately nutritious diet in a particular area.  Therefore, the CoD is a tool to link nutrient availability with economic food access. 
 
Nutrition
16 November 2012

Poor nutrition in the first 1,000 days of life – from the womb to two years of age – can lead to irreversible damage to children’s minds and bodies. The World Food Programme in Asia is targeting its food assistance to make sure that children and adults get the right food, at the right time, in the right place.

Focus on Women, Nutrition, School Meals
14 December 2006

In Indonesia, a low-income food-deficit country, more than 100 million people live near or below the poverty line. There are numerous slums; many rural areas lack basic infrastructure; high levels of chronic malnutrition persist. WFP’s realistic appraisal of where its impact will be greatest led to an increasing focus on nutritional interventions, especially for mothers and children, combined with innovative approaches to influencing Government policy through sophisticated and robust food security and nutrition mapping. WFP also plays a central role in anticipating and responding to natural disasters.