The situation in Iraq remains volatile due to long years of ongoing instability. Since 1990, both accessibility and the quality of essential services have deteriorated significantly in a country where one quarter of the population lives below the poverty line of US$2 per day. Although Iraqis’ dependency on the Public Distribution System (PDS) has decreased from 67 percent in 2007 to 57 percent in 2011, it remains the main source of food for the poorest Iraqis.
In 2012, the influx of Syrian refugees into northern Iraq due to the ongoing conflict was an added burden. The Kurdistan Regional Government, UN agencies and NGOs are providing assistance to Syrian refugees.