The Ethiopia Mid-Term Evaluation of the Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation examines the relevance, results and factors explaining the operation’s performance in 2008 and 2009. The evaluation was conducted by three independent evaluators with fieldwork in Ethiopia in November 2009. The evaluation found that the relief component responded to the series of national economic and climate shocks and improved access to food for populations affected by insecurity and drought. Under the Productive Safety Net Programme it addressed the increased demand for food transfers resulting from a sharp increase in the price of food and had a positive impact on food security. The Targeted Supplementary Feeding component provided support to those most at risk from malnutrition, and the urban HIV/AIDS component demonstrated significant beneficial outcomes for people living with HIV/AIDS on anti-retroviral therapy and for orphans and vulnerable children. The evaluation includes five recommendations for further action by WFP, Government of Ethiopia and partners.