In 2015, the R4 Rural Resilience Initiative expanded in Ethiopia and Senegal and started in Malawi and Zambia. The initiative now reaches over 192,000 people (32,000 farmers and their families) with its comprehensive risk management approach. Many others are benefitting from combinations of risk reduction, risk reserves and prudent risk taking interventions. In 2015, the first phase of impact evaluation in Senegal was finalized, showing positive results in improving smallholder farmers’ resilience in the face of increasing climate risk. 2015 also saw the biggest payouts in the history of R4 with over US$445,000 distributed to insured farmers in Ethiopia and Senegal due to the dry conditions caused by El Niño.