Throughout the P4P pilot, a range of positive changes were observed in the lives and livelihoods of smallholder farmers. To identify which can be directly attributed to P4P, in-depth impact assessments were carried out in four of the 20 pilot countries. Despite methodological challenges, results point to positive changes achieved through P4P support, while providing insights to improve future efforts. Impact assessments were carried out in El Salvador, Ethiopia, Ghana and Tanzania. Preliminary analyses have been carried out for three of the countries, with the Ghana Impact Assessment to be finalized this year.