West Africa hard-hit by climate crisis as deadly floods decimate lives and livelihoods
The floods hit West Africa as world leaders prepare to meet on the climate crisis at COP27 in Egypt and highlight the urgent need to help communities on the frontlines of the climate crisis adapt, expand solutions that address loss and damage incurred during climate-related disasters, and invest in climate action in fragile contexts.
“Families in West Africa have already been pushed to the limit in the wake of conflict, the socio-economic fallout from the pandemic, and skyrocketing food prices. These floods act as a misery multiplier and are the final straw for communities already struggling to keep their heads above water,” said Chris Nikoi, the UN World Food Programme (WFP)’s Regional Director for Western Africa.
“WFP is on the ground helping flood-hit families get back on their feet by providing an immediate response package, while also helping to build community resilience to future shocks and pave a pathway out of this catastrophic situation,” Nikoi added.
The short-term meteorological forecasts indicate above average seasonal rainfall across the Western Africa region (except southern coastal areas), with a risk of flooding affecting people and further driving up humanitarian needs. A confluence of calamities already left 43 million people facing crisis and emergency (IPC/CH phases 3+4) levels of food insecurity during the June-August lean season.
In response, WFP is on the ground providing a three-month emergency assistance package targeting 427,000 flood-hit women, men and children in critically affected countries including the Central African Republic, Chad, the Gambia, Nigeria, Sao Tome & Principe, and Sierra Leone. WFP also provides post-flood response mainly targeting smallholder farmers whose crops have been destroyed.
WFP’s emergency food assistance is provided in the form of food and cash disbursements helping affected families meet their basic food and nutrition needs at a time when food prices are skyrocketing, already pushing basic meals out of reach for vulnerable families.
In many countries across the region, food prices are still on the rise compared to the 5-year average. Maize prices, for example, rose by 106%, 78%, 42% respectively in Ghana, Niger and Nigeria. In Burkina Faso, sorghum prices increased by 85%. In Mauritania, wheat is up by 49%, while in Sierra Leone, imported rice is up by a staggering 87%. The spiralling food, fuel and fertilizer prices not only aggravate the hunger crisis but also foment socio-economic tensions – as governments struggle to respond to the crisis due to heavy debt burdens and limited fiscal space.
In addition to responding to the immediate needs of flood-hit communities, WFP is implementing an Anticipatory Action programme that helps build the capacity of governments and partners. This includes setting up early warning systems to better prepare for climate extremes when they take place and providing funding opportunities to avert or mitigate the impacts of imminent extreme weather events. In August, WFP activated its Anticipatory Action in Niger targeting 200,000 at-risk people with early warning messages and advisory information.
“Strengthening resilience and promoting climate adaptation is an essential part of anticipating climate hazards, restoring degraded ecosystems, and protecting vulnerable communities against the impact of climate extremes,” Nikoi noted.
In arid lands across the Sahel, WFP’s focus is on building local resilience to the cascading effects of the climate crisis, by promoting farming techniques that help restore degraded lands and ecosystems. WFP supports communities in building rainwater catchment systems and other sustainable water storage options that allow farmers to plant fruits and vegetables even after the riverbeds dry up.
WFP also implements a climate risk insurance scheme that improves African governments’ management of climate risks. In 2022, WFP disbursed US$ 9.4 million from the African Risk Capacity (ARC) Replica for the implementation of an early response plan in Mauritania, Mali, and Burkina Faso following the 2021 drought.
To ensure that WFP's flood-response programme can effectively assist affected communities, WFP requires US$ 15 million through March 2023.
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Overview of the flooding in hard-hit countries:
- Central African Republic: Starting in July, torrential rains drove flooding in Bangui, Bangassou (south-west) and Paoua (north-west) prefectures affecting 35,000 people, destroying livelihoods, and houses. Many of those affected are sheltering with host families or in public spaces like schools or churches. WFP is responding through emergency cash assistance targeting 30,000 people who urgently require food assistance.
- Chad: The country is experiencing the worst floods in 30 years with 1 million people affected, hundreds of houses destroyed and massive damages to cropland and livelihoods. Projections point to the risk of large-scale river flooding in the coming days which could make more people homeless. WFP is providing tents to shelter the homeless and hot meals to flood-hit families. A three-month emergency food response was provided in September targeting 300,000 people across the country.
- The Gambia: Torrential rains in late July 2022 drove flooding that affected 109,000 people in suburbs in urban settlements. In August, WFP launched an emergency food assistance programme targeting 51,200 women, men and children affected by the worst flash floods the Gambia has experienced in nearly half a century.
- Nigeria: Since June 2022, floods caused by torrential rains have swept through large swathes of land in 28 of the country’s 36 states – including the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The floods have affected 3.48 million people, led to many deaths and destroyed 637,000 hectares of cropland. WFP is on the ground providing emergency assistance to those hard-hit by the floods in Damaturu, Yobe State, which is one of the most flood-affected states in Nigeria.
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