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Monitoring and evaluation of anticipatory actions for drought: Guidance and tools for Forecast-based Financing programmes

Author: WFP, Clemens Gros, Paris Kazis and Jesse Mason
This document seeks to offer practical guidance and examples for monitoring and evaluating anticipatory actions for drought, helping to answer the overarching question of “Does drought Forecast-based Financing (FbF) make a difference?” to reduce or mitigate the impacts on affected populations.

The forecast-based nature of a Forecast-based Financing (FbF) programme and the complexity of the drought context imply several particularities for M&E that are considered in this guide. Instead of aiming to be an exhaustive programme or project M&E manual – which would require repeating existing guidance available elsewhere – this document focuses on the particular M&E challenges posed by the FbF and drought contexts.


It does not prescribe a particular approach or method, but flags key issues, provides perspectives for consideration and points to useful resources and further reading to allow FbF teams to make informed decisions about how to set up their M&E.


The examples and tools in this guide are built in a modular fashion so that country teams can adapt and use them in their programme settings. All content is based on practical experience from FbF programmes and built on existing organizational policy, guidance and M&E practice.

The primary audience are WFP M&E and Programme staff in country offices (COs), although the methods and tools compiled in this guide should be useful to anyone working on M&E of anticipatory action for drought.