Since the 1996 World Food Summit, China has made remarkable progress in increasing agricultural production, incomes and the nutritional status of its population. In the face of tight supply in the global food market and food crises in many countries, China has maintained a grain self-sufficiency rate above 95% in recent years, contributing greatly to global food security. China has also made brilliant achievements in poverty reduction and meeting the basic food needs of the poor population. Furthermore, China transitioned from a recipient of the World Food Programme's (WFP) assistance at the end of 2005 into a donor to WFP. China's experience in attaining food security and reducing poverty could be shared and applied to improve food security and nutritional levels elsewhere in the world. Despite its achievement, there are still some areas and populations vulnerable to food insecurity in China due to disparities between ruban and rural areas, and among regions. It is important to identify these areas and populations for improving the overall food security with better-targeted measures. To that end, WFP, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) jointly set up a research project on the food security status in China, whose major findings are presented in this book for sharing with the readers.