© WFP/Jonny Hogg
Turkey is an upper middle income country with an economy ranked 18th largest in the world. With international borders including Iraq and Syria, Turkey has had a greater influx of people fleeing conflict than any other country in the world. In 2019 it is hosting 3.9 million refugees, the vast majority of them Syrians. Most refugees live in communities, but there are still around 63,000 living in camps.
The influx of refugees has created increased pressure on host communities, straining local markets and infrastructure.
Registered Syrians have access to healthcare, education, social services and the labour market. However, while legislation allows Syrians to apply for work permits, it remains difficult for most refugees to find formal employment, forcing many to move within Turkey to areas where they can secure informal work. This kind of work is low paid and many refugees live in poor-quality housing and struggle to earn the minimum wage.
The World Food Programme (WFP) works in Turkey to assist refugees, both those living in camps and those in host communities. The Turkish people and institutions have so far been at the forefront of the emergency response, placing a significant burden on Turkey’s own economic resources. In addition to helping refugees through cash transfers that are spent in local businesses, WFP is helping the Turkish economy by purchasing the bulk of food commodities for the Syrian Regional Emergency Operation from Turkey.
In September 2016, WFP signed the largest humanitarian deal in European history: a EUR 348 million contract with the European Union to roll out a programme known as the Emergency Social Safety Net (ESSN), which contributes to the goals laid out in the Grand Bargain. The EU has now invested more than EUR 1 billion in the programme, including a record EUR 777 million towards a single contract – the largest humanitarian grant WFP has ever received from a single donor.
Partnering with the European Commission’s Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid department (ECHO), WFP has joined forces with the Turkish Red Crescent and the Government of Turkey to lessen the suffering of over a million refugees in Turkey and help to restore a sense of normal life to those living outside camps. The EU Facility for Refugees in Turkey 2 has a funding envelope of EUR 1.05 billion set aside for humanitarian work – this will allow the programme to continue with the current caseload well into 2021.
What the World Food Programme is doing in Turkey
Helping refugees outside campsWFP provides cash assistance to the most vulnerable refugees living in host communities. In partnership with the Turkish Red Crescent, WFP is providing monthly cash transfers that people can use to shop for food and clothes, or to pay rent and utility bills. Around 1.5 million people are supported under the ESSN Programme.
Helping Syrian refugees in campsWFP works with the Turkish Red Crescent to help provide food assistance to 150,000 of the most vulnerable Syrian refugees still living in camps in Turkey. Starting in October 2012, the organizations rolled out an e-food card programme that adds a monthly balance to families’ debit cards so that they can buy food from local shops.
Supporting Turkey's economySince 2012, WFP has injected US$ 1.01 billion into the Turkish economy through cash transfers to refugees. WFP also has a history of large-scale commodity procurement in Turkey to support its global operations. More than US$ 2.01 billion worth of commodities have been procured in Turkey since 2011. Almost two thirds of these commodities have been used for emergency food assistance in WFP’s operations in Iraq, Syria and the region, including surrounding countries hosting refugees. Since December 2016, ESSN has injected almost $740million into the host economy.